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    西藏文學的又一個春天


      今年迎來了西藏民主改革六十周年,這六十年里西藏文學也在不斷發展壯大,文學作品的主題也從為宗教服務,回歸到表現現實世界,表達普通人的喜怒哀樂上來,在不同的時代,涌現出來一批優秀的作品和作家,為繁榮和豐富我國文學做出了自己的一份貢獻。
     
      漢藏兩種文字比翼齊飛
     
      上世紀50年代末期到60年代中期,漢藏兩種文字的作家比翼齊飛,涌現出了擦珠·阿旺羅桑、江洛金·索朗杰布、高平、汪承棟、楊星火、徐懷中、劉克等詩人與小說家。他們的作品里呈現的是一個時代的變遷,記錄了西藏社會、經濟、思想觀念發生的深刻變化,成為了映射一個時代發展的一面鏡子。作家成為了那個時代的謳歌者,徐懷中的長篇小說《我們播種愛情》,抒寫了青年人建設新西藏的豪情壯志和他們的愛情生活,反映了西藏和平解放后的社會變革;劉克的小說《央金》《曲嘎波人》《嘎拉渡口》等,歌頌了黨和人民解放軍與西藏人民的血肉關系。開啟了當代西藏文學的先河。
     
      民族作家走向創作前臺
     
      上世紀80年代初期,益西單增創作的長篇小說《迷茫的大地》《幸存的人》的問世,使西藏文學得到了全國的關注,益希丹增的長篇小說《幸存的人》獲得了全國第一屆少數民族文學創作長篇小說獎。這一時期西藏文學的最大特色是民族作家走向文學創作的前臺,創作出了一批優秀的具有較大反響的作品,班覺的《綠松石》、扎西班典的《明天的天氣一定會比今天好》、旺多的《齋蘇府秘聞》、德吉措姆的《漫漫轉經路》等,其中《綠松石》獲西藏自治區優秀創作獎和全國少數民族文學創作長篇小說獎,《明天的天氣一定會比今天好》獲得了全國少數民族駿馬獎。他們的作品里呈現了舊西藏的黑暗,農奴的悲慘生活;解放后的藏族農民對美好生活的憧憬和韌性。這些作品緊貼西藏的現實生存背景,用現實主義的手法描摹了社會政治生活變化,在作品內蘊上顯現了藏族文學獨特的民族風貌。真正讓藏族文學成為一個重要力量,被我國文壇所重視是在上世紀80年代中期,正因扎西達娃、馬原、色波、通嘎等人對文學敘事的不斷探索與創新,使得藏族文學邁入了中國當代文學的最前沿陣地。扎西達娃的《西藏,系在皮繩結上的魂》《西藏,隱秘歲月》,馬原的《疊紙鷂的三種方法》《喜馬拉雅古歌》,色波的《竹笛·啜泣和夢》《圓形日子》等作品顯現了極強的先鋒勇氣。洋滔、加央西熱、閆振中、諾杰·洛桑嘉措等詩人,在詩歌領域內的“雪野詩派”創作獨樹一幟,引起了國內詩歌界的關注和認可。馬麗華的大型紀實散文《走過西藏》《靈魂像風》《西行阿里》等也為西藏文化熱推波助瀾,對推動西藏文學起到了不可估量的作用。這一時期的西藏文學呈現出蓬勃的發展勢頭和青春活力。
     
      共同鑄就新輝煌
     
      由盛而衰是一種規律,自上世紀80年代的西藏文學鼎盛期到如今已經過去了近30年,在這些年里西藏的文學創作者不忘初心,努力尋找新的突破點,為西藏文學的再次繁榮積蓄力量,筆耕不輟。近年來西藏作家的作品在全國得到了廣泛的認可,也取得了一些成績,從這些端倪上可以看出,西藏文學的又一個春天可以期待。如次仁羅布的長篇小說《祭語風中》被國家新聞出版廣電總局列入“中國77 部文藝原創精品作品”,獲第六屆中華優秀出版物獎,中國小說協會“2015年度中國長篇小說排行榜第三名”獎,2016年獲“第五屆漢語文學女評委獎大獎”;多篇作品發表在《人民文學》《花城》《長江文藝》等國內重要刊物上。尼瑪潘多的長篇小說《紫青稞》獲西藏自治區珠穆朗瑪文學藝術獎,曾進入第八屆茅盾文學獎前五十部作品。白瑪娜珍的《復活的度母》《西藏的月光》等作品在國內引起了廣泛的關注。這些作家之外還有一批的中青年作家,平措扎西、格央、班丹、羅布次仁、敖超、張祖文、白央、瓊吉、陳躍軍、沙冒智化、洛桑更才、白瑪玉珍等。
     
      西藏文學經過多年的沉寂和蓄勢,隨著央珍的長篇小說《無性別的神》的出版,標志著西藏文學的蟄伏期已經結束。文學的主題和敘事策略都發生了深刻的變化,作家們用一種向內審視的眼光,從當下、從民族過往的歷史中尋找西藏新小說的增長點,以民族文化作為自己的立足根基,將藏族傳統文化中的許多優秀品質體現在作品里,表現人的善良、勇氣、擔當、堅守等,為我國的文學吹來了一股清新的和風。這樣的承續與創新,也給西藏文學帶來了榮譽,加央西熱的長篇報告文學《西藏最后的馱隊》獲得了第四屆魯迅文學獎,次仁羅布的短篇小說《放生羊》獲第五屆魯迅文學獎,平措扎西的《西藏古風》獲第十屆全國少數民族文學創作“駿馬獎”,旦巴亞爾杰的長篇小說《昨天的部落》獲第十一屆全國少數民族文學創作“駿馬獎”等。新世紀以來,西藏當代文學蓬勃發展,呈現了強勁的勢頭。西藏作家成為文學創作的主力軍,他們的創作顯現出獨特的民族氣質和豐厚的民族文化意蘊,作品關注現實和當下,尼瑪潘多創作出了長篇小說《紫青稞》,白瑪娜珍推出長篇小說《拉薩紅塵》《復活的度母》,格央完成長篇小說《讓愛慢慢永恒》,張祖文出版了長篇小說《光芒大地》,敖超長篇小說《直線三公里》,次仁羅布出版中短篇小說集《放生羊》,班丹出版了中短篇小說集《微風佛過的日子》,平措扎西出版了文化散文集《世俗西藏》,吉米平階長篇紀實文學《葉巴紀實》,白央的詩集《一粒青稞的舞蹈》,洛桑更才的詩集《流浪的八廓》,沙冒智化的《時光的紐扣》,瓊吉的《拉薩女神》等,這些作品在國內外都產生了較大的影響。同時,藏文創作也是齊頭并進,從題材到內容都發生了較大的轉變,作品數量也是逐年增長,這些年里涌現出了一批優秀作品,扎西班典的長篇小說《一個普通家庭的歲月》,旦巴亞爾杰的長篇小說《遙遠的黑帳篷》,次仁央吉的長篇小說《花與夢》和中短篇小說集《山峰云朵》,格桑占堆的長篇小說《遠處流逝的小溪》,米瑪次仁的長篇小說《傷情歲月》,艾·尼瑪次仁的中短篇小說集《石頭與生命》,朗嘎扎西的《變形雞蛋》,白拉的詩集《最初的印象》,伍堅多吉的詩集《雪域抒懷》等作品也享譽西藏,其中很多作品獲得了西藏自治區級和地市級的各種文學獎。
     
      新世紀以來的西藏文學,經過多民族作家共同努力,鑄就了新的輝煌,顯現出更為多元化的面貌。
     
      西藏自治區成立以來,經過半個多世紀的跋涉,西藏當代文學取得了豐碩的成果,涌現出了一批知名的作家,他們的作品不但在中國當代文壇產生了廣泛的影響,也被翻譯介紹到了國外,在豐富、發展多元化的中國文學的同時,成為了外界了解西藏的一個不可缺少的重要途徑。近年來,西藏自治區黨委和政府對文學藝術類作品的扶持力度不斷加大,西藏文學迎來了一個蓬勃發展的最佳時機,作家們也是肩負責任,勇于擔當,不辱使命,為中國文學的盛宴,不斷創作出優秀的具有西藏高原特色的文學作品來。
     
      (作者為《西藏文學》主編)
     
      來源:人民日報海外版
      作者:次仁羅布  
     
    http://www.chinawriter.com.cn/n1/2019/0703/c404034-31210036.html
     
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